Zero-Emission Future Questions

  • How can the Navistar Zero Emissions team support my transition to a zero-emissions fleet?
    The Navistar Zero Emissions team will support your transition by facilitating a comprehensive buying process, which encompasses more than your vehicle purchase. Our 5Cs approach leverages the insights of Zero Emissions subject matter experts and internal teams, as well as partnerships with third-party entities such as In-Charge Energy and OneH2, to ensure you are purchasing not just the vehicles but the charging solutions and infrastructure that enable your customers’ success.
  • How can I determine if an electric truck is right for my fleet?
    A great starting place is the TCO Calculator. The Zero Emissions team can also help:  Schedule a visit HERE.
  • Why is the commercial vehicle industry transitioning to zero-emissions vehicles?
    Because of the damaging effects of fossil fuels on the environment, the push for EVs has never been greater. The transition to zero-emissions vehicles will help to reduce the impact of fossil fuel use on climate change, air and water quality. Depending on the type of vehicle, battery electric trucks and buses are up to 3.5 times more efficient than diesel and natural gas vehicles at normal speeds. (SOURCE:  SOURCE LINK) With fewer parts to replace, maintenance on each vehicle will also be greatly reduced.
  • How do hydrogen and battery electric vehicles compare with diesel-powered trucks and buses?
    Simply put, zero-emissions vehicles are quicker, quieter and cleaner, creating a better experience inside the vehicle and out, while producing zero tailpipe emissions. Furthermore, EV trucks cost less in the long run because they have less parts and require less maintenance.
  • How do battery electric vehicles work and what advantages do they offer?

    High-voltage batteries power the truck, communicating with software that sends energy to an electric motor. Battery electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions.  
    Currently, battery electric vehicles are ideally suited for operations such as:

    • Regional haul day cab routes
    • Vehicles that return to the depot at the end of the day/shift for charging, example, school buses
    • Areas where there are federal or state incentives for infrastructure and fleet investments
    • Dense urban areas where total cost of ownership can be on par with traditional powertrains
  • Will the electrical grid be able to support this transition?
    Necessary infrastructure upgrades are in process. Most utilities are investing in grid updates and are preparing for the future of zero-emissions vehicles.  As for the present, commercial EVs are unlikely to overload the grid, since the vast majority of charging takes place at night, when electricity demand is lowest.
  • How do hydrogen fuel cells work and what advantages do they offer?
    • A fuel cell converts the chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity. Hydrogen fuel cells emit only water, eliminating carbon dioxide and other emissions.
    • A fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) has several advantages over a battery electric vehicle, including:
      • Quick refueling, typically in minutes
      • Longer range (up to 500 miles)
      • The ability to carry more payload due to a higher density by weight
    • Trucks powered by fuel cells have many benefits over diesel power, including:
      • Producing zero emissions during operation while matching the uptime of diesel vehicles
      • Carrying more payload and offering more power due to the lighter powertrain and fuel system
      • The ability to bypass rules against idling
  • How safe is hydrogen?
    Hydrogen has been used for over 40 years as an industrial chemical and a fuel. Over that time a robust infrastructure to produce, store, transport and utilize hydrogen safely has been developed. When handled properly, hydrogen is just as safe as diesel and other fuels but is non-toxic to the environment. Onboard hydrogen fuel tanks have internal isolation valves that close in the event of an accident. The limited amount of hydrogen fuel in the vehicle’s fuel system at any given time does not pose a substantial risk if breached.

Product Questions

  • How is safety built into electric vehicles from International® and IC Bus®? 
    • Important safety features include:
    • Electric “handshake” high-voltage interlock
    • Charging only possible when the cable is fully connected
    • Protection from high voltage during charging, maintenance, or accidents
    • Safe in all weather conditions
    • Vehicle is immobile while charging: Impossible to drive off while connected
  • What is regenerative (“regen”) braking? Why do Navistar’s electric vehicles provide 3 levels of regenerative braking?

    One reason today’s electric trucks and buses can achieve such impressive range is regenerative braking technology. Instead of using friction from the brake rotors (which is wasted energy) to slow the vehicle, under moderate braking, electric trucks and buses use the electric motor to slow down, while at the same time, charging the battery.

    The vehicles from International® and IC Bus® take this concept a step further by employing three levels of driver-selectable regenerative braking:

    • Level 1 provides similar stopping capabilities to a traditional automatic transmission vehicle. 
    • Level 2 provides a moderate amount of regenerative braking.
    • Level 3 allows for one-pedal style driving and will slow the vehicle to a few miles per hour with the driver using the service brake to bring the vehicle to a complete stop.
  • How long does an EV battery last? 
    Although factors such as battery composition, temperature, charging rate, etc., affect EV battery performance, it is not unusual for them to last the life of the vehicle. For additional peace of mind, International and IC Bus electric vehicles offer extended battery warranties.

Battery Electric Charging Questions 

  • How long will it take to get my charging infrastructure in place?
    According to the North American Council for Freight Efficiency (NACFE), every charging installation faces a variety of variables—number of trucks to charge, local utility rate tariffs and power delivery structure, existing site and local grid details. The Zero Emissions team and our charging partner will work closely with each customer to make sure your installation proceeds at the fastest rate while serving your business needs. More information from the NACFE Study can be found here - SOURCE LINK
  • What types of chargers are available for Navistar vehicles?
    • Any charger with a minimum 600 volts will work. That includes:
      • Network-capable chargers
      • Level 2 AC (19.2 kW) - 1772 SAE standard connection
      • Minimum for overnight charging (not recommended)
      • DC charging station (30 kW) - Combination CCS1 adapter port
      • More efficient than AC, recommended minimum
      • DC fast-charge station (up to 125 kW) - Combination CCS1 adapter port
      • More efficient than AC, fastest option
      • DC public fast-charging (up to 125 kW)
  • How long does it take to charge a commercial vehicle? 
    AC charging typically takes overnight, DC fast-charging, in just a few hours. Environmental factors such as battery age and condition and ambient temperature are additional factors. The Zero Emissions team will work with our customers to recommend the best installation for your charging needs.
  • Why should my in-house chargers be network-capable?
    Network capable chargers can receive over-the-air (OTA) updates to diagnose charging issues. They also allow the fleet manager to monitor charging status.

Industry Terminology

  • Amperage

    The rate of flow of electrons through a circuit, a.k.a. current

  • Average Power

    The amount of power that your fleet requires while charging, averaged over the charging window

  • BEV

    Battery-Electric Vehicles

  • BEV Demand

    The amount of power supplied to BEVs during charging

  • Charging Rate

    The rate at which a BEV is charged, measured in kilowatts (kW)

  • Charging Window

    The period of time in your fleet’s duty cycle when vehicles can charge

  • Circuit

    The path along which electricity flows

  • Cloud-Based Communications

    A wireless internet-based service carrying information on EVSE status, energy consumption, location, and payment for use between the owner and the user(s)

  • DCFC

    Direct current fast charge, usually stated as DC fast charge

  • Demand Charge

    A fee applied to your greatest power draw during peak periods, on top of the rate that you pay for the energy ($/kW)

  • Distribution

    The process of delivering power from transmission lines to the customer

  • Duty Cycle

    The portion of time during which a vehicle is operated

  • Energy Charge

    Your baseline price of electricity, charged based on the amount of energy you consume ($/kWh)

  • EVSE

    Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment, or the charger unit

  • Fixed Charge

    A fee covering the regulator-approved costs that the utility pays to supply your power such as distribution and transmission ($/month)

  • Flat Rate

    A rate structure under which you are billed at a single price per kilowatt-hour consumed regardless of time, season or application

  • Generation

    The process of producing electricity from a fuel source

  • ICE

    Internal Combustion Engine

  • kW

    One kilowatt is equal to 1000 watts

  • kWh

    Kilowatt-hour, a unit of measure for electrical energy. 1 kWh is the energy delivered by 1 kW of power for 1 hour

  • Load Profile

    A graph showing the amount(s) of power that your fleet requires over the course of a day

  • Meter

    A device that records the amount of power (kW) and energy (kWh)

  • Networking Service

    An internet-based service that allows an EVSE owner to analyze basic activity data from one or more EVSE

  • Peak Shaving

    A strategy to reduce power consumption during periods of high demand

  • Power Factor Adjustment

    An adjustment to your demand charge according to how efficiently your facility consumes power

  • Rate Structure

    A set of parameters used to define the prices that a customer may be charged at different times of the day

  • Seasonal Rate

    Additional distribution fees covering the costs of weather stressors on the electric grid during winter or summer

  • Substation

    A set of electric equipment that reduces high-voltage power to a voltage suitable for distribution to customers

  • Time-of-Use (TOU)

    A rate structure under which you are billed different prices for power you consume according to the time and season when it is consumed

  • Transformer

    A device that changes electricity from one level of voltage to another

  • Transmission

    The process of moving power in large quantities across long distances

  • Voltage

    Pressure created by a difference in electrical charge between two points

  • Watt

    One watt is defined as the current flow of one ampere with voltage of one volt.

  • ZEV

    Zero-Emission Vehicle

  • CHAdeMO Plug

    A round four-pin plug that is exclusively used for rapid charging points and is often compatible with electric vehicles manufactured in Asia, such as Mitsubishi and Nissan. CHAdeMO offers Vehicle to Grid (V2G) but has less power than CCS and requires two separate sockets.

  • Combined Charging System (CCS)

    A type of connector that has been standardized. It combines two DC pins below the Type 2 AC connector and uses 3 of the Type 2 pins. This connector is found on most Type 2 BEVs.

  • ISO 15118

    An international standard that outlines the digital communication protocol that an electric vehicle and a charging station should use to recharge an electric vehicle’s battery

  • MPGe (miles per gallon equivalent)

    The official metric that the EPA uses to measure the efficiency of alternative-fuel (including electric) vehicles. This makes it the most common number you’ll come across when researching an electric vehicle. Just like regular MPG shows how far a car will travel on one gallon of gas, MPGe shows how far a vehicle will drive on 33.7 kWh of electricity – the energy equivalent of one gallon of gasoline

  • Regenerative Braking

    Regenerative braking uses the vehicle’s motors to slow down the vehicle rather than the friction brakes.  This sends energy back into the batteries for future use, which extends range.

  • State of Charge (SOC)

    The equivalent of a fuel gauge for the rechargeable battery within an electric vehicle. SOC is measured by percentage points and ranges from 0% to 100%. This enables the EV driver to see how much charge their vehicle is currently holding.

  • Handshake

    When you connect the plug into the vehicle the car will electronically handshake with the charging station. Once the handshake is made, the relay in the charging station will open, allowing electrons to flow to the car. When you disconnect the plug, the electricity stops flowing through the cable.

  • L1 -Level 1 charging

    Level 1 charging uses a common 120-volt household outlet. Every electric vehicle can be charged on Level 1 by plugging the charging equipment into a regular wall outlet. Level 1 is the slowest way to charge an EV. It is too slow to be used for buses or commercial vehicles.

  • L2 - Level 2 charging

    L2 - Level 2 charging is the most commonly used level for daily EV charging of automobiles. Level 2 charging equipment can be installed at home, at the workplace, as well as in public locations like shopping plazas, train

  • L3 Level 3 charging

    L3 Level 3 charging is the fastest type of charging available . Unlike Level 1 and Level 2 charging that uses alternating current (AC), Level 3 charging uses direct current (DC). It is the most common level of charging for school buses and commercial trucks.


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